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قديم 15-06-2006, 11:11 AM   #1

الصورة الرمزية عبد الله الساهر

 رقم العضوية :  1
 تاريخ التسجيل :  22-07-2004
 المشاركات :  70,789
 الدولة :  ムレ3乃乇乇尺
 الجـنـس :  ذكر
 العمر :  38
 عدد النقاط :  243859
 قوة التقييم :  عبد الله الساهر تم تعطيل التقييم
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حتى لو اجتهدت و قطعت فؤادك.. ووضعته للناس في طبق فضي ليرضوا عنك لن تفلح وربما لن تصل لمستوى يرضيك أنت عن نفسك فاجتهد ليكون الله وحده راضياً عنك وأغمض عينيك عن ما سواه

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افتراضي IT related terms





IT RELATED TERMS

UNIX
A high-level programming ************************ developed by Dennis Ritchie at Bell Labs in the mid 1970s. Although originally designed as a systems programming ************************, C has proved to be a powerful and flexible ************************ that can be used for a variety of applications, from business programs to engineering. C is a particularly popular ************************ for personal computer programmers because it is relatively small -- it requires less memory than other ************************s.
The first major program written in C was the UNIX operating system, and for many years C was considered to be inextricably linked with UNIX. Now, however, C is an important ************************ independent of UNIX.
Although it is a high-level ************************, C is much closer to assembly ************************ than are most other high-level ************************s. This closeness to the underlying machine ************************ allows C programmers to write very efficient code. The low-level nature of C, however, can make the ************************ difficult to use for some types of applications.

LINUX
Pronounced lee-nucks, A freely-distributable implementation of UNIX that runs on a number of hardware platforms, including Intel and Motorola microprocessors. It was developed mainly by Linus Torvalds. Because it's free, and because it runs on many platforms, including PCs, Macintoshes and Amigas, Linux has become extremely popular over the last couple years.
Another popular, free version of UNIX that runs on Intel microprocessors is FreeBSD.

GUI
A program interface that takes advan*********e of the computer's graphics capabilities to make the program easier to use. Well-designed graphical user interfaces can free the user from learning complex command ************************s. On the other hand, many users find that they work more effectively with a command-driven interface, especially if they already know the command ************************.
Graphical user interfaces, such as Microsoft Windows and the one used by the Apple Macintosh, feature the following basic components:
 pointer : A symbol that appears on the display screen and that you move to select ******************s and commands. Usually, the pointer appears as a small angled arrow. ************ -processing applications, however, use an I-beam pointer that is shaped like a capital I.
 pointing device : A device, such as a mouse or trackball, that enables you to select ******************s on the display screen.
 icons : Small pictures that represent commands, files, or windows. By moving the pointer to the icon and pressing a mouse button, you can execute a command or convert the icon into a ************************ You can also move the icons around the display screen as if they were real ******************s on your desk.
 desktop : The area on the display screen where icons are grouped is often referred to as the desktop because the icons are intended to represent real ******************s on a real desktop.
 windows: You can divide the screen into different areas. In each window, you can run a different program or display a different file. You can move windows around the display screen, and change their shape and size at will.
 menus : Most graphical user interfaces let you execute commands by selecting a choice from a menu.
The first graphical user interface was designed by Xerox Corporation's Palo Alto Research Center in the 1970s, but it was not until the 1980s and the emergence of the Apple Macintosh that graphical user interfaces became popular. One reason for their slow acceptance was the fact that they require considerable CPU power and a high-quality monitor, which until recently were prohibitively expensive.
In addition to their visual components, graphical user interfaces also make it easier to move data from one application to another. A true GUI includes standard formats for representing ************ and graphics. Because the formats are well-defined, different programs that run under a common GUI can share data. This makes it possible, for example, to copy a graph created by a spreadsheet program into a ************************ created by a word processor.
Many DOS programs include some features of GUIs, such as menus, but are not graphics ************d. Such interfaces are sometimes called graphical character-************d user interfaces to distinguish them from true GUIs.


MULTITASKING
The ability to execute more than one task at the same time, a task being a program. The terms multitasking and multiprocessing are often used interchangeably, although multiprocessing sometimes implies that more than one CPU is involved.
In multitasking, only one CPU is involved, but it switches from one program to another so quickly that it gives the appearance of executing all of the programs at the same time.
There are two basic types of multitasking: preemptive and cooperative. In preemptive multitasking, the operating system parcels out CPU time slices to each program. In cooperative multitasking, each program can control the CPU for as long as it needs it. If a program is not using the CPU, however, it can allow another program to use it temporarily. OS/2, Windows 95, Windows NT, the Amiga operating system and UNIX use preemptive multitasking, whereas Microsoft Windows 3.x and the MultiFinder (for Macintosh computers) use cooperative multitasking.


OS/2
An operating system for PCs developed originally by Microsoft Corporation and IBM, but sold and managed solely by IBM. OS/2 is compatible with DOS and Windows, which means that it can run all DOS and Windows programs. However, programs written specifically to run under OS/2 will not run under DOS or Windows.
Since its introduction in the late 80s, OS/2 has traveled a particularly rocky road. The first releases were hampered by a number of technical and marketing problems. Then Microsoft abandoned the project in favor of its own operating system solution, Microsoft Windows. That break spawned a feud between the two computer giants that is still being played out in many arenas.


ASSEMBLY ************************
A programming ************************ that is once removed from a computer's machine ************************. Machine ************************s consist entirely of numbers and are almost impossible for humans to read and write. Assembly ************************s have the same structure and set of commands as machine ************************s, but they enable a programmer to use names instead of numbers.
Each type of CPU has its own machine ************************ and assembly ************************, so an assembly ************************ program written for one type of CPU won't run on another. In the early days of programming, all programs were written in assembly ************************. Now, most programs are written in a high-level ************************ such as FORTRAN or C. Programmers still use assembly ************************ when speed is essential or when they need to perform an operation that isn't possible in a high-level ************************.


C#
A hybrid of C and C++, it is Microsoft's newest programming ************************ developed to compete with Sun's Java ************************. C# is an ******************-oriented programming ************************ used with XML -************d Web services on the.NET platform and designed for improving productivity in the development of Web applications. C# boasts type-safety, garbage collection, simplified type declarations, versioning and scalability support, and other features that make developing solutions faster and easier, especially for COM+ and Web services. Microsoft critics have pointed to the similarities between C# and Java.
C++
A high-level programming ************************ developed by Bjarne Stroustrup at Bell Labs. C++ adds ******************-oriented features to its predecessor, C. C++ is one of the most popular programming ************************ for graphical applications, such as those that run in Windows and Macintosh environments.

HIGH LEVEL ************************S
A programming ************************ such as C, FORTRAN, or Pascal that enables a programmer to write programs that are more or less independent of a particular type of computer. Such ************************s are considered high-level because they are closer to human ************************s and further from machine ************************s. In contrast, assembly ************************s are considered low-level because they are very close to machine ************************s.
The main advan*********e of high-level ************************s over low-level ************************s is that they are easier to read, write, and maintain. Ultimately, programs written in a high-level ************************ must be translated into machine ************************ by a compiler or interpreter.
The first high-level programming ************************s were designed in the 1950s. Now there are dozens of different ************************s, including Ada, Algol, BASIC, COBOL, C, C++, FORTRAN, LISP, Pascal, and Prolog.


LOW LEVEL LANG

The lowest-level programming ************************ (except for computers that utilize programmable microcode) Machine ************************s are the only ************************s understood by computers. While easily understood by computers, machine ************************s are almost impossible for humans to use because they consist entirely of numbers. Programmers, therefore, use either a high-level programming ************************ or an assembly ************************. An assembly ************************ contains the same instructions as a machine ************************, but the instructions and variables have names instead of being just numbers.
Programs written in high-level ************************s are translated into assembly ************************ or machine ************************ by a compiler. Assembly ************************ programs are translated into machine ************************ by a program called an assembler.
Every CPU has its own unique machine ************************. Programs must be rewritten or recompiled, therefore, to run on different types of computers.

PROG LANG
A vocabulary and set of grammatical rules for instructing a computer to perform specific tasks. The term programming ************************ usually refers to high-level ************************s, such as BASIC, C, C++, COBOL, FORTRAN, Ada, and Pascal. Each ************************ has a unique set of keywords (words that it understands) and a special syntax for organizing program instructions.
High-level programming ************************s, while simple compared to human ************************s, are more complex than the ************************s the computer actually understands, called machine ************************s. Each different type of CPU has its own unique machine ************************.
Lying between machine ************************s and high-level ************************s are ************************s called assembly ************************s. Assembly ************************s are similar to machine ************************s, but they are much easier to program in because they allow a programmer to substitute names for numbers. Machine ************************s consist of numbers only.
Lying above high-level ************************s are ************************s called fourth-generation ************************s (usually abbreviated 4GL). 4GLs are far removed from machine ************************s and represent the class of computer ************************s closest to human ************************s.
your program into machine ************************ so that the computer can understand it. There are two ways to do this:
 compile the program
 interpret the program
See compile and interpreter for more information about these two methods.
The question of which ************************ is best is one that consumes a lot of time and energy among computer professionals. Every ************************ has its strengths and weaknesses. For example, FORTRAN is a particularly good ************************ for processing numerical data, but it does not lend itself very well to organizing large programs. Pascal is very good for writing well-structured and readable programs, but it is not as flexible as the C programming ************************. C++ embodies powerful ******************-oriented features, but it is complex and difficult to learn.
The choice of which ************************ to use depends on the type of computer the program is to run on, what sort of program it is, and the expertise of the programmer.

V C++
An application development tool developed by Microsoft for C++ programmers. Visual C++ supports ******************-oriented programming of 32-bit Windows applications with an integrated development environment (IDE), a C/C++ compiler, and a class library called the Microsoft Foundation Classes (MFC). The IDE includes an AppWizard, ClassWizard, and testing features to make programming easier. Visual C++ was introduced in 1993, and Release 4.0 became available in 1996.

MFC
Short for Microsoft Foundation Classes, a large library of C++ classes developed by Microsoft. For Windows -************d applications written in C++, MFC provides an enormous headstart. One of the hardest parts of developing C++ programs is designing a logical hierarchy of classes. With MFC, this work has already been done.
MFC is bundled with several C++ compilers and is also available as part of the Microsoft Developer's Network (MSDN).

. ******************-oriented programming (OOP)
A popular buzzword that can mean different things depending on how it is being used. ******************-oriented programming (OOP) refers to a special type of programming that combines data structures with functions to create re-usable ******************s (see under ******************-oriented programming). ******************-oriented graphics is the same as vector graphics.
Otherwise, the term ******************-oriented is generally used to describe a system that deals primarily with different types of ******************s, and where the actions you can take depend on what type of ****************** you are manipulating. For example an ******************-oriented draw program might enable you to draw many types of ******************s, such as circles, rectangles, triangles, etc. Applying the same action to each of these ******************s, however, would produce different results. If the action is Make 3D, for instance, the result would be a sphere, box, and pyramid, respectively.


BASIC
Acronym for Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code. Developed by John Kemeney and Thomas Kurtz in the mid 1960s at Dartmouth College, BASIC is one of the earliest and simplest high-level programming ************************s. During the 1970s, it was the principal programming ************************ taught to students, and continues to be a popular choice among educators.
Despite its simplicity, BASIC is used for a wide variety of business applications. There is an ANSI standard for the BASIC ************************, but most versions of BASIC include many proprietary extensions. Microsoft's popular Visual Basic, for example, adds many ******************-oriented features to the standard BASIC.
Recently, many variations of BASIC have appeared as programming, or macro, ************************s within applications. For example, Microsoft Word and Excel both come with a version of BASIC with which users can write programs to customize and automate these applications.

CLASS
In ******************-oriented programming, a category of ******************s. For example, there might be a class called shape that contains ******************s which are circles, rectangles, and triangles. The class defines all the common properties of the different ******************s that belong to it.

VB
A programming ************************ and environment developed by Microsoft. ************d on the BASIC ************************, Visual Basic was one of the first products to provide a graphical programming environment and a paint ************phor for developing user interfaces. Instead of worrying about syntax details, the Visual Basic programmer can add a substantial amount of code simply by dragging and dropping controls, such as buttons and dialog boxes, and then defining their appearance and behavior.
Although not a true ******************-oriented programming ************************ in the strictest sense, Visual Basic nevertheless has an ******************-oriented philosophy. It is sometimes called an event-driven ************************ because each ****************** can react to different events such as a mouse click.
Since its launch in 1990, the Visual Basic approach has become the norm for programming ************************s. Now there are visual environments for many programming ************************s, including C, C++, Pascal, and Java. Visual Basic is sometimes called a Rapid Application Development (RAD) system because it enables programmers to quickly build prototype applications.

JAVA
A high-level programming ************************ developed by Sun Microsystems. Java was originally called OAK, and was designed for handheld devices and set-top boxes. Oak was unsuccessful so in 1995 Sun changed the name to Java and modified the ************************ to take advan*********e of the burgeoning World Wide Web.
Java is an ******************-oriented ************************ similar to C++, but simplified to eliminate ************************ features that cause common programming errors. Java source code files (files with a .java extension) are compiled into a format called bytecode (files with a .class extension), which can then be executed by a Java interpreter. Compiled Java code can run on most computers because Java interpreters and runtime environments, known as Java Virtual Machines (VMs), exist for most operating systems, including UNIX, the Macintosh OS, and Windows. Bytecode can also be converted directly into machine ************************ instructions by a just-in-time compiler (JIT).
Java is a general purpose programming ************************ with a number of features that make the ************************ well suited for use on the World Wide Web. Small Java applications are called Java ******************s and can be downloaded from a Web server and run on your computer by a Java-compatible Web browser, such as Netscape Navigator or Microsoft Internet Explorer.


IFC
Short for Internet Foundation Classes, a set of Java classes developed by Netscape that enables programmers to easily add GUI elements, such as windows, menus and buttons.
Netscape and Sun Microsystems have announced that the next version of the Java Development Kit (JDK) will combine the Abstract window Toolkit (AWT) with the IFC. This combination of classes will be called the Java Foundation Classes (JFC).
The IFC is similar to Microsoft's Application Foundation Classes (AFC).

AWT
Short for Abstract Windows Toolkit, the Java API that enables programmers to develop Java applications with GUI components, such as windows, buttons, and scroll bars. The Java Virtual Machine (VM) is responsible for translating the AWT calls into the appropriate calls to the host operating system. Ideally, the AWT should enable any Java application to appear the same whether it's run in a Windows, Macintosh or UNIX environment. In practice, however, most Java applications look slightly different depending on the platform on which they're executed.


POLYMORPHISM
Generally, the ability to appear in many forms. In ******************-oriented programming, polymorphism refers to a programming ************************'s ability to process ******************s differently depending on their data type or class. More specifically, it is the ability to redefine methods for derived classes. For example, given a ************ class shape, polymorphism enables the programmer to define different circumference methods for any number of derived classes, such as circles, rectangles and triangles. No matter what shape an ****************** is, applying the circumference method to it will return the correct results. Polymorphism is considered to be a requirement of any true ******************-oriented programming ************************ (OOPL).
The type of polymorphism described above is sometimes called parametric polymorphism to distinguish it from another type of polymorphism called overloading.


NET WORK MANAGEMENT
Refers to the broad subject of managing computer networks. There exists a wide variety of software and hardware products that help network system administrators manage a network. Network management covers a wide area, including:
 Security: Ensuring that the network is protected from unauthorized users.
 Performance: Eliminating bottlenecks in the network.
 Reliability: Making sure the network is available to users and responding to hardware and software malfunctions.



ACTIVE WEB PAGE
1. A specification for a dynamically created Web page with a .ASP extension that utilizes ActiveX ******************ing -- usually VB ****************** or J****************** code. When a browser requests an ASP page, the Web server generates a page with HTML code and sends it back to the browser. So ASP pages are similar to CGI ******************s, but they enable Visual Basic programmers to work with familiar tools.
2. ASP also stands for Application Service Provider


VB ******************
Short for Visual Basic ******************ing Edition, a ******************ing ************************ developed by Microsoft and supported by Microsoft's Internet Explorer Web browser. VB****************** is ************d on the Visual Basic programming ************************, but is much simpler. In many ways, it is similar to Java******************. It enables Web authors to include interactive controls, such as buttons and scrollbars, on their Web pages.


VIRTUAL MACHINE
A self-contained operating environment that behaves as if it is a separate computer. For example, Java ******************s run in a Java virtual machine (VM) that has no access to the host operating system. This design has two advan*********es:
 System Independence: A Java application will run the same in any Java VM, regardless of the hardware and software underlying the system.
 Security: Because the VM has no contact with the operating system, there is little possibility of a Java program damaging other files or applications.
The second advan*********e, however, has a downside. Because programs running in a VM are separate from the operating system, they cannot take advan*********e of special operating system features.

JAVA BEANS
A specification developed by Sun Microsystems that defines how Java ******************s interact. An ****************** that conforms to this specification is called a JavaBean, and is similar to an ActiveX control. It can be used by any application that understands the JavaBeans format.
The principal difference between ActiveX controls and JavaBeans are that ActiveX controls can be developed in any programming ************************ but executed only on a Windows platform, whereas JavaBeans can be developed only in Java, but can run on any platform.


DATA TYPE
In programming, classification of a particular type of information. It is easy for humans to distinguish between different types of data. We can usually tell at a glance whether a number is a percen*********e, a time, or an amount of money. We do this through special symbols -- %, :, and $ -- that indicate the data's type. Similarly, a computer uses special internal codes to keep track of the different types of data it processes.
Most programming ************************s require the programmer to declare the data type of every data ******************, and most data************ systems require the user to specify the type of each data field. The available data types vary from one programming ************************ to another, and from one data************ application to another, but the following usually exist in one form or another:
 integer : In more common parlance, whole number; a number that has no fractional part.
 floating-point : A number with a decimal point. For example, 3 is an integer, but 3.5 is a floating-point number.
 character (************ ): Readable ************


ACTIVE XA
control using ActiveX technologies. An ActiveX control can be automatically downloaded and executed by a Web browser. ActiveX is not a programming ************************, but rather a set of rules for how applications should share information. Programmers can develop ActiveX controls in a variety of ************************s, including C, C++, Visual Basic, and Java.
An ActiveX control is similar to a Java ******************. Unlike Java ******************s, however, ActiveX controls have full access to the Windows operating system. This gives them much more power than Java ******************s, but with this power comes a certain risk that the ****************** may damage software or data on your machine. To control this risk, Microsoft developed a registration system so that browsers can identify and authenticate an ActiveX control before downloading it. Another difference between Java ******************s and ActiveX controls is that Java ******************s can be written to run on all platforms, whereas ActiveX controls are currently limited to Windows environments.
Related to ActiveX is a ******************ing ************************ called VB****************** that enables Web authors to embed interactive elements in HTML ************************s. Just as Java****************** is similar to Java, so VB****************** is similar to Visual Basic. Currently, Microsoft's Web browser, Internet Explorer, supports Java, Java******************, and ActiveX, whereas Netscape's Navigator browsers support only Java and Java******************, though plug-ins can enable support of VB****************** and ActiveX.

BROWSER
Short for Web browser, a software application used to locate and display Web pages. The two most popular browsers are Netscape Navigator and Microsoft Internet Explorer. Both of these are graphical browsers, which means that they can display graphics as well as ************. In addition, most modern browsers can present multimedia information, including sound and video, though they require plug-ins for some formats.


APPLICATION
A program or group of programs designed for end users. Software can be divided into two general classes: systems software and applications software. Systems software consists of low-level programs that interact with the computer at a very basic level. This includes operating systems, compilers, and utilities for managing computer resources.
In contrast, applications software (also called end-user programs) includes data************ programs, word processors, and spreadsheets. Figuratively speaking, applications software sits on top of systems software because it is unable to run without the operating system and system utilities.







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رحمك الله يا أنس
وجعل الفردوس دارك ومستقرك



عبد الله الساهر متواجد حالياً
رسالة لكل زوار منتديات العبير

عزيزي الزائر أتمنى انك استفدت من الموضوع و لكن من اجل منتدى ارقي و ارقي برجاء عدم نقل الموضوع و يمكنك التسجيل معنا و المشاركة معنا و النقاش في كافه المواضيع الجاده اذا رغبت في ذلك فانا لا ادعوك للتسجيل بل ادعوك للإبداع معنا . للتسجيل اضغظ هنا .

قديم 20-06-2006, 02:09 AM   #2
Has A Reputation Beyond Repute

الصورة الرمزية أحمد نسيب

 رقم العضوية :  220
 تاريخ التسجيل :  17-10-2005
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 عدد النقاط :  50215
 قوة التقييم :  أحمد نسيب has much to be proud ofأحمد نسيب has much to be proud ofأحمد نسيب has much to be proud ofأحمد نسيب has much to be proud ofأحمد نسيب has much to be proud ofأحمد نسيب has much to be proud ofأحمد نسيب has much to be proud ofأحمد نسيب has much to be proud ofأحمد نسيب has much to be proud ofأحمد نسيب has much to be proud ofأحمد نسيب has much to be proud of
 اخر مواضيع » أحمد نسيب
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افتراضي


لي عودة عبادي


لن الموضوع يباله جلسة وتمعن

توقيع :

سبحانك اللهم وبحمدَك

من يهتم بنفسه العليا يصبح رجلا عظيما، أما من يهتم بنفسه السفلي فيصبح رجل وضيعا.
منسيوس
فيلسوف صيني كونفوشيوسي قديم.

أحمد نسيب غير متواجد حالياً
قديم 20-06-2006, 04:48 PM   #3

الصورة الرمزية صمت الجمال

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 تاريخ التسجيل :  06-09-2004
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 قوة التقييم :  صمت الجمال is on a distinguished road
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افتراضي


راح ارجع اكيد بعد ترجمته


إلا وتجعل صموته في موقف محرج


اكيد لنا عودة

توقيع :




أنا رحاله صغير أحمل في جيبي بذور ( بذور محبه ) كلما التقيت بإنسان زرعة معه بذوري إن سقاها كبرت وأينعت وإن لم يسقها ماتت واندثرت
وما همني إن سقاها أو ماتت ما يهمني هو عندما أصعد قمت الجبل وأنظر خلفي وأرى بساتين المحبة أشعر حينها بالإنسانيه


صمت الجمال غير متواجد حالياً
قديم 19-04-2007, 10:07 PM   #4

الصورة الرمزية سكوتي كلآآم

 رقم العضوية :  10
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 قوة التقييم :  سكوتي كلآآم will become famous soon enough
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افتراضي


ههههههههههه
ترجمه الساهر

توقيع :

سكوتي كلآآم غير متواجد حالياً
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